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Code-free machine learning: AutoML with AutoGluon, Amazon SageMaker, and AWS Lambda

One of AWS’s goals is to put machine learning (ML) in the hands of every developer. With the open-source AutoML library AutoGluon, deployed using Amazon SageMaker and AWS Lambda, we can take this a step further, putting ML in the hands of anyone who wants to make predictions based on data—no prior programming or data […]

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One of AWS’s goals is to put machine learning (ML) in the hands of every developer. With the open-source AutoML library AutoGluon, deployed using Amazon SageMaker and AWS Lambda, we can take this a step further, putting ML in the hands of anyone who wants to make predictions based on data—no prior programming or data science expertise required.

AutoGluon automates ML for real-world applications involving image, text, and tabular datasets. AutoGluon trains multiple ML models to predict a particular feature value (the target value) based on the values of other features for a given observation. During training, the models learn by comparing their predicted target values to the actual target values available in the training data, using appropriate algorithms to improve their predictions accordingly. When training is complete, the resulting models can predict the target feature values for observations they have never seen before, even if you don’t know their actual target values.

AutoGluon automatically applies a variety of techniques to train models on data with a single high-level API call—you don’t need to build models manually. Based on a user-configurable evaluation metric, AutoGluon automatically selects the highest-performing combination, or ensemble, of models. For more information about how AutoGluon works, see Machine learning with AutoGluon, an open source AutoML library.

To get started with AutoGluon, see the AutoGluon GitHub repo. For more information about trying out sophisticated AutoML solutions in your applications, see the AutoGluon website. Amazon SageMaker is a fully managed service that provides every developer and data scientist with the ability to build, train, and deploy ML models efficiently. AWS Lambda lets you run code without provisioning or managing servers, can be triggered automatically by other AWS services like Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), and allows you to build a variety of real-time data processing systems.

With AutoGluon, you can achieve state-of-the-art predictive performance on new observations with as few as three lines of Python code. In this post, we achieve the same results with zero lines of code—making AutoML accessible to non-developers—by using AWS services to deploy a pipeline that trains ML models and makes predictions on tabular data using AutoGluon. After deploying the pipeline in your AWS account, all you need to do to get state-of-the-art predictions on your data is upload it to an S3 bucket with a provided AutoGluon package.

The code-free ML pipeline

The pipeline starts with an S3 bucket, which is where you upload the training data that AutoGluon uses to build your models, the testing data you want to make predictions on, and a pre-made package containing a script that sets up AutoGluon. After you upload the data to Amazon S3, a Lambda function kicks off an Amazon SageMaker model training job that runs the pre-made AutoGluon script on the training data. When the training job is finished, AutoGluon’s best-performing model makes predictions on the testing data, and these predictions are saved back to the same S3 bucket. The following diagram illustrates this architecture.

Deploying the pipeline with AWS CloudFormation

You can deploy this pipeline automatically in an AWS account using a pre-made AWS CloudFormation template. To get started, complete the following steps:

  1. Choose the AWS Region in which you’d like to deploy the template. If you’d like to deploy it in another region, please download the template from GitHub and upload it to CloudFormation yourself.
    Northern Virginia
    Oregon
    Ireland
    Sydney
  2. Sign in to the AWS Management Console.
  3. For Stack name, enter a name for your stack (for example, code-free-automl-stack).
  4. For BucketName, enter a unique name for your S3 bucket (for example, code-free-automl-yournamehere).
  5. For TrainingInstanceType, enter your compute instance.

This parameter controls the instance type Amazon SageMaker model training jobs use to run AutoGluon on your data. AutoGluon is optimized for the m5 instance type, and 50 hours of Amazon SageMaker training time with the m5.xlarge instance type are included as part of the AWS Free Tier. We recommend starting there and adjusting the instance type up or down based on how long your initial job takes and how quickly you need the results.

  1. Select the IAM creation acknowledgement checkbox and choose Create stack.
  2. Continue with the AWS CloudFormation wizard until you arrive at the Stacks page.

It takes a moment for AWS CloudFormation to create all the pipeline’s resources. When you see the CREATE_COMPLETE status (you may need to refresh the page), the pipeline is ready for use.

  1. To see all the components shown in the architecture, choose the Resources tab.
  2. To navigate to the S3 bucket, choose the corresponding link.

Before you can use the pipeline, you have to upload the pre-made AutoGluon package to your new S3 bucket.

  1. Create a folder called source in that bucket.
  2. Upload the sourcedir.tar.gz package there; keep the default object settings.

Your pipeline is now ready for use!

Preparing the training data

To prepare your training data, go back to the root of the bucket (where you see the source folder) and make a new directory called data; this is where you upload your data.

Gather the data you want your models to learn from (the training data). The pipeline is designed to make predictions for tabular data, the most common form of data in real-world applications. Think of it like a spreadsheet; each column represents the measurement of some variable (feature value), and each row represents an individual data point (observation).

For each observation, your training dataset must include columns for explanatory features and the target column containing the feature value you want your models to predict.

Store the training data in a CSV file called <Name>_train.csv, where <Name> can be replaced with anything.

Make sure that the header name of the desired target column (the value of the very first row of the column) is set to target so AutoGluon recognizes it. See the following screenshot of an example dataset.

Preparing the test data

You also need to provide the testing data you want to make predictions for. If this dataset already contains values for the target column, you can compare these actual values to your model’s predictions to evaluate the quality of the model.

Store the testing dataset in another CSV file called <Name>_test.csv, replacing <Name> with the same string you chose for the corresponding training data.

Make sure that the column names match those of <Name>_train.csv, including naming the target column target (if present).

Upload the <Name>_train.csv and <Name>_test.csv files to the data folder you made earlier in your S3 bucket.

The code-free ML pipeline kicks off automatically when the upload is finished.

Training the model

When the training and testing dataset files are uploaded to Amazon S3, AWS logs the occurrence of an event and automatically triggers the Lambda function. This function launches the Amazon SageMaker training job that uses AutoGluon to train an ensemble of ML models. You can view the job’s status on the Amazon SageMaker console, in the Training jobs section (see the following screenshot).

Performing inference

When the training job is complete, the best-performing model or weighted combination of models (as determined by AutoGluon) is used to compute predictions for the target feature value of each observation in the testing dataset. These predictions are automatically stored in a new directory within a results directory in your S3 bucket, with the filename <Name>_test_predictions.csv.

AutoGluon produces other useful output files, such as <Name>_leaderboard.csv (a ranking of each individual model trained by AutoGluon and its predictive performance) and <Name>_model_performance.txt (an extended list of metrics corresponding to the best-performing model). All these files are available for download to your local machine from the Amazon S3 console (see the following screenshot).

Extensions

The trained model artifact from AutoGluon’s best-performing model is also saved in the output folder (see the following screenshot).

You can extend this solution by deploying that trained model as an Amazon SageMaker inference endpoint to make predictions on new data in real time or by running an Amazon SageMaker batch transform job to make predictions on additional testing data files. For more information, see Work with Existing Model Data and Training Jobs.

You can also reuse this automated pipeline with custom model code by replacing the AutoGluon sourcedir.tar.gz package we prepared for you in the source folder. If you unzip that package and look at the Python script inside, you can see that it simply runs AutoGluon on your data. You can adjust some of the parameters defined there to better match your use case. That script and all the other resources used to set up this pipeline are freely available in this GitHub repository.

Cleaning up

The pipeline doesn’t cost you anything more to leave up in your account because it only uses fully managed compute resources on demand. However, if you want to clean it up, simply delete all the files in your S3 bucket and delete the launched CloudFormation stack. Make sure to delete the files first; AWS CloudFormation doesn’t automatically delete an S3 bucket with files inside.

To delete the files from your S3 bucket, on the Amazon S3 console, select the files and choose Delete from the Actions drop-down menu.

To delete the CloudFormation stack, on the AWS CloudFormation console, choose the stack and choose Delete.

In the confirmation window, choose Delete stack.

Conclusion

In this post, we demonstrated how to train ML models and make predictions without writing a single line of code—thanks to AutoGluon, Amazon SageMaker, and AWS Lambda. You can use this code-free pipeline to leverage the power of ML without any prior programming or data science expertise.

If you’re interested in getting more guidance on how you can best use ML in your organization’s products and processes, you can work with the Amazon ML Solutions Lab. The Amazon ML Solutions Lab pairs your team with Amazon ML experts to prepare data, build and train models, and put models into production. It combines hands-on educational workshops with brainstorming sessions and advisory professional services to help you work backward from business challenges, and go step-by-step through the process of developing ML-based solutions. At the end of the program, you can take what you have learned through the process and use it elsewhere in your organization to apply ML to business opportunities.


About the Authors

Abhi Sharma is a deep learning architect on the Amazon ML Solutions Lab team, where he helps AWS customers in a variety of industries leverage machine learning to solve business problems. He is an avid reader, frequent traveler, and driving enthusiast.

Ryan Brand is a Data Scientist in the Amazon Machine Learning Solutions Lab. He has specific experience in applying machine learning to problems in healthcare and the life sciences, and in his free time he enjoys reading history and science fiction.

Tatsuya Arai Ph.D. is a biomedical engineer turned deep learning data scientist on the Amazon Machine Learning Solutions Lab team. He believes in the true democratization of AI and that the power of AI shouldn’t be exclusive to computer scientists or mathematicians.

Source: https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/machine-learning/code-free-machine-learning-automl-with-autogluon-amazon-sagemaker-and-aws-lambda/

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Things to Know about Free Form Templates

A single file that includes numerous supporting files is commonly known as a form template. Some files will define or show the controls to appear on the free form templates or design. The collections of these supporting files or templates are also called form files. While designing free form templates, users should be able to […]

The post Things to Know about Free Form Templates appeared first on 1redDrop.

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A single file that includes numerous supporting files is commonly known as a form template. Some files will define or show the controls to appear on the free form templates or design. The collections of these supporting files or templates are also called form files. While designing free form templates, users should be able to view and also work with the form files. 

It will create a new free form template by copying and storing those files within a folder. A form template (.XSN) file designing or creation of a single file will include various supporting files. Users may fill out the online form by accessing the .XML form file, which is a form template.

Designing Free Form Templates

There are numerous processes that define free form template design, and are as follows:

  • Designing the form’s appearance – the instructional text, labels, and controls
  • Controls will assist with user interaction behavior on the form template. You can design a specific section to appear or disappear when the user chooses a particular option
  • Whether the form template may include some additional views. For a permit application form design, for example, you have to provide different views for each person. One view especially for the electrical contractor, next for the receiving agent, and finally, the investigator. He or she will deny or approve the permit application
  • Next, you need to know how & where to store the form data. Designing free from templates will allow users to submit their data within the database either online or direct access. If not, they can also store the same in any specific shared folder
  • It is essential to design the other elements, colors, and fonts within the form template
  • Users must be able to personalize the form. Allowing users to include various rows within the optional section, repeating section, or a repeating table
  • Users should receive a notification when they forget to input a mandatory field or make mistakes within the form
  • After completing the free form templates design, you can publish the same online using a .XSN file format

Club Signup Form

A simple registration form can help your Club Signup Form creation process go smoother. This signup form could be an ideal solution for a new club membership registration for any organization or club.

Application Form

Application form templates are much easier to use & set-up to streamline your application process. You can customize this online form and utilize the same for numerous applications. Make use of this application form as a job application form, volunteer applications, contest entries, or high school scholarship applications. It is an ideal solution for scholarship programs, nonprofit organizations, business owners, and many such users and use cases.

Scheduling Form

Scheduling form templates are handy and can be used for numerous appointment booking requirements. A scheduling form is also utilized for various appointment scheduling or online reservations and booking purposes. Regardless of your business requirement, it is easy to customize the form template.

Concept Testing Survey

While testing a new design or concept, it is essential to gather the responses quickly. Freeform templates for a concept testing survey make it much easier to gather product feedback and reach the target audience. It is essential to conduct market research while planning to release a new product. A mobile-friendly form will allow you to utilize the survey questions for collecting the product’s consumer input quickly.

Credit Card Order Form

It is not always a complex process to provide an online credit card payment form for the customers. This form template will allow you to access numerous services or products for collecting card payment information. You can utilize this yet-another endless and simple payment form.

Employment Application Form

The employment application form for recruitment will assist the HR team to gather the required information from candidates. During the interview or application process, you can easily remove any expensive follow-ups. Some of the fields are contact information, employment history, useful information, etc. as well as an outline of the job description, consent for background checks, military service record, anticipated start date, any special skills, and many more. It is optional to enable notifications for the form owners to receive an alert or email when a new employment application is submitted.

Source: https://1reddrop.com/2020/10/24/things-to-know-about-free-form-templates/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=things-to-know-about-free-form-templates

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Are Chatbots Vulnerable? Best Practices to Ensure Chatbots Security

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Rebecca James
credit IT Security Guru

A simple answer is a Yes! Chatbots are vulnerable. Some specific threats and vulnerabilities risk chatbots security and prove them a wrong choice for usage. With the advancement in technology, hackers can now easily target the hidden infrastructure of a chatbot.

The chatbot’s framework has an opportunity for the attackers ready to inject the malicious codes or commands that might unlock the secured data of the customers and your business. However, the extent of the attack’s complexity and success might depend on the messaging platform’s security.

Are you thinking about how chatbots are being exposed to attacks? Well! Hackers are now highly advanced. They attack the chatbots in two ways, i.e., either by social engineering attack or by technical attacks.

  • An evil bot can impersonate a legal user by using backup data of the possibly targeted victims by social engineering attack. All such data is collected from various sources like the dark web and social media platforms. Sometimes they use both sources to gain access to some other user’s data by a bot providing such services.
  • The second attack is technical. Here also attackers can turn themself into evil bots who exchange messages with the other bots. The purpose is to look for some vulnerabilities in the target’s profile that can be later exploited. It can eventually lead to the compromise of the entire framework that protects the data and can ultimately lead to data theft.

To ensure chatbots security, the bot creators must ensure that all the security processes are in place and are responsible for restoring the architecture. The data flow via the chatbot system should also be encrypted both in transit and rest.

To further aid you in chatbot security, this article discusses five best practices to ensure chatbots security. So, let’s read on.

The following mentioned below are some of the best practices to ensure the security of chatbots.

It’s always feared that data in transit can be spoofed or tampered with the sophistication of cybercriminals’ technology and smartness. It’s essential to implement end-to-end encryption to ensure that your entire conversation remains secured. It means that by encryption, you can prevent any third person other than the sender and the receiver from peeping into your messages.

Encryption importance can’t be neglected in the cyber world, and undoubtedly the chatbot designers are adapting this method to make sure that their chatbot security is right on the point. For more robust encryption, consider using business VPNs that encrypt your internet traffic and messages. With a VPN, you can also prevent the threats and vulnerabilities associated with chatbots.

1. 8 Proven Ways to Use Chatbots for Marketing (with Real Examples)

2. How to Use Texthero to Prepare a Text-based Dataset for Your NLP Project

3. 5 Top Tips For Human-Centred Chatbot Design

4. Chatbot Conference Online

Moreover, it’s a crucial feature of other chat services like WhatsApp and other giant tech developers. They are anxious to guarantee security via encryption even when there’s strict surveillance by the government. Such encryption is to fulfill the legal principles of the GDPR that says that companies should adopt measures to encrypt the users’ data.

User identity authentication is a process that verifies if the user is having secure and valid credentials like the username and password. The login credentials are exchanged for having a secure authentication token used during the complete user session. If you haven’t, then you should try out this method for boosting user security.

Authentication timeouts are another way to ensure your chatbots security. This method is more common in banks as the token can be used for the predetermined time.

Moreover, two-factor authentication is yet another method to prove user identity. Users are asked to verify identity either by a text message or email, depending on the way they’ve chosen. It also helps in the authorization process as it permits access to the right person and ensures that information isn’t mishandled or breached.

The self-destructive message features open another way for enhancing chatbot security. This option comes in handy when the user provides their personally identifiable information. Such information can pose a serious threat to user privacy and should be destroyed or deleted within a set period. This method is handier when you’re associated with backing or any other financial chatbots.

By using secure protocols, you can also ensure chatbots security. Every security system, by default, has the HTTPS protocol installed in it. If you aren’t an IT specialist, you can also identify it when you view the search bar’s URL. As long as your data is being transferred via HTTPS protocol and encrypted connections, TLS and SSL, your data is secured from vulnerabilities and different types of cyber-attacks.

Thus, make sure to use secure protocols for enhanced security. Remember that when Chatbots are new, the coding and system used to protect it is the same as the existing HIMs. They interconnect with their security systems and have more than one encryption layer to protect their users’ security.

Do you know what the most significant security vulnerability that’s challenging to combat is? Wondering? Well! It’s none other than human error. User behavior must be resolved using commercial applications because they might continue to believe that the systems are flawed.

No doubt that an unprecedented number of users label the significance of digital security, but still, humans are the most vulnerable in the system. Chatbot security continues to be a real big problem until the problem of user errors comes to an end. And this needs education on various forms of digital technology, including chatbots.

Here the customers aren’t the ones who are to be blamed. Like customers, employees can make a mistake, and they do make most of the time. To prevent this, the chatbot developers should form a defined strategy, including the IT experts, and train them on the system’s safe use. Doing so enhances the team’s skillset and allows them to engage with the chatbot system confidently.

However, clients can’t be educated like the employees. But at least you can provide them a detailed road map of securely interacting with the system. It might involve other professionals who can successfully engage customers and educate them on the right way to interact with the chatbots.

Several emerging technologies are keen to play a vital role in protecting the chatbots against threats and vulnerabilities in the upcoming time, among all the most potent method behavior analytics and Artificial Intelligence developments.

  • User Behavioral Analytics: It’s a process that uses applications to study the patterns of user behavior. It enables them to implement complex algorithms and statistical analysis to detect any abnormal behavior that possibly represents a security threat. Analytical tools are quite common and powerful; thus, this methodology can become a fundamental component of the chatbot system.
  • Developments in AI: Artificial technology is a two-end sword that offers benefits and threats simultaneously. But, as AI is predicted to fulfill its potential, it will provide an extra security level to the systems. It is mainly because of its ability to wipe a large amount of data for abnormalities that recognizes security breaches and threats.

The Bottom Line

Security concerns have always been there with new technologies and bring new threats and vulnerabilities with them. Although chatbots are an emerging technology, the security practices that stand behind them are present for a long time and are effective. Chatbots are the innovative development of the current era, and emerging technologies like AI will transform the way businesses might interact with the customers and ensure their security.

Source: https://chatbotslife.com/are-chatbots-vulnerable-best-practices-to-ensure-chatbots-security-d301b9f6ce17?source=rss—-a49517e4c30b—4

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Best Technology Stacks For Mobile App Development

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What’s the Best Tech Stack for Mobile App Development? Read To Know

Which is the Best Tech Stack for Mobile Application Development? Kotlin, React Native, Ionic, Xamarin, Objective-C, Swift, JAVA… Which One?

Image Source: Google

Technology Stack for smartphones is like what blood is for the human body. Without a technology stack, it is hard even to imagine smartphones. Having a smartphone in uncountable hands is rising exponentially. For tech pundits, this is one unmissable aspect of our digital experience wherein tech stack is as critical as ROI.

The riveting experience for a successful mobile app predominantly depends on technology stacks.

The unbiased selection of mobile apps development language facilitates developers to build smooth, functional, efficient apps. They help businesses tone down the costs, focus on revenue-generation opportunities. Most importantly, it provides customers with jaw-dropping amazement, giving a reason to have it installed on the indispensable gadget in present times.

In today’s time, when there are over 5 million apps globally, and by all conscience, these are whopping no.s and going to push the smartphone industry further. But now you could see mobile app development every ‘nook and corner.’ But the fact is not who provides what but understanding the behavioural pattern of users.

So the pertinent question is, which is the ideal tech stack to use for mobile app development?

In native mobile app development, all toolkits, mobile apps development language, and the SDK are supported and provided by operating system vendors. Native app development thus allows developers to build apps compatible with specific OS environments; it is suitable for device-specific hardware and software. Hence it renders optimized performance using the latest technology. However, since Android & iOS imparts — — a unique platform for development, businesses have to develop multiple mobile apps for each platform.

1. Waz

2. Pokemon Go

3. Lyft

1.Java: The popularity of JAVA still makes it one of the official programming languages for android app development until the introduction of Kotlin. Java itself is at the core of the Android OS. Many of us even see the logo of Java when the device reboots. However, contradictions with Oracle (which owns the license to Java) made Google shift to open-source Java SDK for versions starting from Android 7.0 Nougat

2.Kotlin: According to Google I/O conference in 2019- Kotlin is the officially supported language for Android app development. It is entirely based on Java but has a few additions which make it simpler and easier to work.

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2. How to Use Texthero to Prepare a Text-based Dataset for Your NLP Project

3. 5 Top Tips For Human-Centred Chatbot Design

4. Chatbot Conference Online

It’s my gut feeling like other developers to say that Kotlin is simply better. It has a leaner, more straightforward and concise code than open-cell Java, and several other advantages about handling null-pointer exceptions and more productive coding.

HERE’S A Programming Illustration Defining the CONCISENESS OF KOTLIN CODE

public class Address {

private String street;

private int streetNumber;

private String postCode;

private String city;

private Country country;

public Address(String street, int streetNumber, String postCode, String city, Country country) {

this.street = street;

this.streetNumber = streetNumber;

this.postCode = postCode;

this.city = city;

this.country = country;

}

@Override

public boolean equals(Object o) {

if (this == o) return true;

if (o == null || getClass() != o.getClass()) return false;

Address address = (Address) o;

if (streetNumber != address.streetNumber) return false;

if (!street.equals(address.street)) return false;

if (!postCode.equals(address.postCode)) return false;

if (!city.equals(address.city)) return false;

return country == address.country;

}

@Override

public int hashCode() {

int result = street.hashCode();

result = 31 * result + streetNumber;

result = 31 * result + postCode.hashCode();

result = 31 * result + city.hashCode();

result = 31 * result + (country != null ? country.hashCode() : 0);

return result;

}

@Override

public String toString() {

return “Address{“ +

“street=’” + street + ‘\’’ +

“, streetNumber=” + streetNumber +

“, postCode=’” + postCode + ‘\’’ +

“, city=’” + city + ‘\’’ +

“, country=” + country +

‘}’;

}

public String getStreet() {

return street;

}

public void setStreet(String street) {

this.street = street;

}

public int getStreetNumber() {

return streetNumber;

}

public void setStreetNumber(int streetNumber) {

this.streetNumber = streetNumber;

}

public String getPostCode() {

return postCode;

}

public void setPostCode(String postCode) {

this.postCode = postCode;

}

public String getCity() {

return city;

}

public void setCity(String city) {

this.city = city;

}

public Country getCountry() {

return country;

}

public void setCountry(Country country) {

this.country = country;

}

}

class Address(street:String, streetNumber:Int, postCode:String, city:String, country:Country) {

var street: String

var streetNumber:Int = 0

var postCode:String

var city: String

var country:Country

init{

this.street = street

this.streetNumber = streetNumber

this.postCode = postCode

this.city = city

this.country = country

}

public override fun equals(o:Any):Boolean {

if (this === o) return true

if (o == null || javaClass != o.javaClass) return false

Val address = o as Address

if (streetNumber != address.streetNumber) return false

if (street != address.street) return false

if (postCode != address.postCode) return false

if (city != address.city) return false

return country === address.country

}

public override fun hashCode():Int {

val result = street.hashCode()

result = 31 * result + streetNumber

result = 31 * result + postCode.hashCode()

result = 31 * result + city.hashCode()

result = 31 * result + (if (country != null) country.hashCode() else 0)

return result

}

public override fun toString():String {

return (“Address{“ +

“street=’” + street + ‘\’’.toString() +

“, streetNumber=” + streetNumber +

“, postCode=’” + postCode + ‘\’’.toString() +

“, city=’” + city + ‘\’’.toString() +

“, country=” + country +

‘}’.toString())

}

}

I’d say KOTLIN IS THE BEST FIND FOR ANDROID APP DEVELOPMENT.Google has dug deeper with some plans ahead since announcing it as an official language. Moreover, it signals Google’s first steps in moving away from the Java ecosystem, which is imminent, considering its recent adventures with Flutter and the upcoming Fuchsia OS.

Objective C is the same for iOS what Java is for Android. Objective-C, a superset of the C programming language( with objective -oriented capabilities and dynamic run time) initially used to build the core of iOS operating system across the Apple devices. However, Apple soon started using swift, which diminishes the importance of Objective -C in comparison to previous compilations.

Apple introduced Swift as an alternative to Objective-C in late 2015, and it has since been continued to be the primary language for iOS app development.Swift is more functional than Objective-C, less prone to errors, dynamic libraries help reduce the size and app without ever compromising performance.

Now, you would remember the comparison we’ve done with Java and kotlin. In iOS, objective-C is much older than swift with much more complicated syntax. Giving cringeworthy feel to beginners to get started with Objective-C.

Image Source: Google

THIS IS WHAT YOU DO WHEN INITIALIZING AN ARRAY IN OBJECTIVE-C:

NSMutableArray * array =[[NSMutableArray alloc] init];

NOW LOOK AT HOW THE SAME THING IS DONE IN SWIFT:

var array =[Int]()

SWIFT IS MUCH MORE ` WHAT WE’VE COVERED HERE.

In cross-platform app development, developers build a single mobile app that can be used on multiple OS platforms. It is made possible by creating an app with a shared common codebase, adapted to various platforms.

Image Source: Google

Popular Cross-platform apps:

  1. Instagram
  2. Skype
  3. LinkedIN

React Native is a mobile app development framework based on JavaScript. It is used and supported by one of the biggest social media platforms- Facebook. In cross-platform apps built using React Native, the application logic is coded in JavaScript, whereas its UI is entirely native. This blog about building a React Native app is worth reading if you want to know why its stakes are higher.

Xamarin is a Microsoft-supported cross-platform mobile app development tool that uses the C# programming language. Using Xamarin, developers can build mobile apps for multiple platforms, sharing over 90% of the same code.

TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript, and is a statically-typed programming language supported by Microsoft. TypeScript can be used along with the React Native framework to make full use of its error detection features when writing code for react components.

In Hybrid mobile app development, developers build web apps using HTML, CSS & JavaScript and then wrap the code in a native shell. It allows the app to be deployed as a regular app, with functionality at a level between a fully native app and a website rendered(web browser).

Image Source: Google
  1. Untappd
  2. Amazon App Store
  3. Evernote

Apache Cordova is an open-source hybrid mobile app development framework that uses JavaScript for logic operations and while HTML5 & CSS3 for rendering. PhoneGap is a commercialized, free, and open-source distribution of Apache Cordova owned by Adobe. The PhoneGap platform was developed to deliver non-proprietary, free, and open-source app development solutions powered by the web.

Ionic is a hybrid app development framework based on AngularJS. Similar to other hybrid platforms, it uses HTML, CSS & JavaScript to build mobile apps. Ionic is primarily focused on the front-end UI experience and integrates well with frameworks such as Angular, Vue, and ReactJS.

To summarize, there are 3 types of mobile apps- Native mobile apps, Cross-platform mobile apps, and Hybrid mobile apps; each offers unique technologies, frameworks, and tools of their own. I have enlisted here the best mobile app technology stacks you could use for mobile app development.

The technologies, tools, and frameworks mentioned here are used in some of the most successful apps. With support from an expert, a well-established mobile app development company, that may give much-needed impetus in the dynamic mobile app development world.

Source: https://chatbotslife.com/best-technology-stacks-for-mobile-app-development-6fed70b62778?source=rss—-a49517e4c30b—4

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