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Football tracking in the NFL with Amazon SageMaker

With the 2020 football season kicking off, Amazon Web Services (AWS) is continuing its work with the National Football League (NFL) on several ongoing game-changing initiatives. Specifically, the NFL and AWS are teaming up to develop state-of-the-art cloud technology using machine learning (ML) aimed at aiding the officiating process through real-time football detection. As a […]

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With the 2020 football season kicking off, Amazon Web Services (AWS) is continuing its work with the National Football League (NFL) on several ongoing game-changing initiatives. Specifically, the NFL and AWS are teaming up to develop state-of-the-art cloud technology using machine learning (ML) aimed at aiding the officiating process through real-time football detection. As a first step in this process, the Amazon Machine Learning Solutions Lab developed a computer vision model for the challenge of football detection. In this post, we provide in-depth examples including code snippets and visualizations to demonstrate the key components of the football detection pipeline, starting with data labeling and following up with training and deployment using Amazon SageMaker and Apache MXNet Gluon.

Detecting the football in NFL Broadcast videos

The following video illustrates detecting the football frame by frame.

Football Tracking

Computer vision-based object detection techniques use deep learning algorithms to predict the location of objects in images and videos. Today, object detection has many far-reaching, high business value use cases, such as in self-driving car technology, where detecting pedestrians and vehicles is of paramount importance in ensuring safety on the roads. For the NFL, object detection technology like this is crucial as the game continues to evolve at a rapid pace. For example, they can use real-time object identification to generate new advanced analytics around player and team performance, in addition to aiding game officials in ball spotting. This technology is part of the larger suite of innovations in the AWS/NFL partnership.

The following sections of the post outline how we used NFL broadcast video data to train object detection models that analyze thousands of images to locate and classify the football from background objects.

Creating an object detection dataset with Amazon SageMaker Ground Truth

Amazon SageMaker Ground Truth is a fully managed data labeling service that makes it easy to build highly accurate training datasets for ML. With the help of Ground Truth, we created a custom object detection dataset by breaking the NFL play segments into images. It offers a user interface (UI) that allowed us to quickly spin up a bounding box labeling job, in which human annotators can quickly draw bounding box labels around thousands of football image sequences stored in an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket. The following screenshot illustrates the object detection UI.

The labeling job outputs a manifest file that contains the S3 file path of the image, the (x, y) bounding box coordinates, and the class label (for this use case, football) needed for the model training process.

The following screenshot shows the manifest file that is automatically updated in the S3 path.

The following screenshot shows the contents of the output.manifest file.

Supercharging training with Apache MXNet Gluon and Amazon SageMaker Script Mode

Our approach to model development relied on an ML technique called transfer learning. In it, we take neural networks previously trained on similar applications with strong results and fine-tune these models on our annotated data. We converted the annotations from the labeling job to RecordIO format for compact storage and faster disk access. Neural networks have the tendency to overfit training data, leading to poor out-of-sample results. The MXNet Gluon toolkit we added provides image normalization and image augmentations, such as randomized image flipping and cropping, to help reduce overfitting during training.

Amazon SageMaker provides a simple UI to train object detection models with no code, offering the Single Shot Detector (SSD) pre-trained model with several out-of-the-box configurations. For a more customized architecture, we use Amazon SageMaker Script Mode, which allows you to bring your own training algorithms and directly train models while staying within the user-friendly confines of Amazon SageMaker. We could train larger, more accurate models directly from Amazon SageMaker notebooks by combining Script Mode with pre-trained models like Yolov3 and Faster-RCNN with several backbone network combinations from the Gluon Model Zoo for object detection. See the following code:

import os
import sagemaker
from sagemaker.mxnet import MXNet
from mxnet import gluon
from sagemaker import get_execution_role sagemaker_session = sagemaker.Session() role = get_execution_role() s3_output_path = "s3://<path to bucket where model weights will be saved>/" model_estimator = MXNet( entry_point="train.py", role=role, train_instance_count=1, # value can be more than 1 for multi node training train_instance_type="ml.p3.16xlarge", framework_version="1.6.0", output_path=s3_output_path, py_version="py3", distributions={"parameter_server": {"enabled": True}}, hyperparameters={"epochs": 15},
) m.fit("s3://<bucket path for train and validation record-io files>/")

Object detection algorithm: Background

Object detectors typically combine two key components: detection of objects in images and regression for estimating bounding box coordinates of objects. During training, object detectors are optimized to reduce both detection error and localization error (bounding box prediction error) via a loss function.

Current state-of-the-art object detectors contain deep learning architectures that use pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) like VGG-16 or ResNet-50 as base networks to perform rich feature extraction from input images. SSD predicts the relative offsets to a fixed set of boxes at every location of a convolutional feature map. Empirically, SSD underperforms other object detector algorithms on small objects like football. In contrast, YOLOv3 uses DarkNet-53 for feature extraction, which concatenates multiple feature maps together to make predictions, leading to improved performance on smaller objects.

Faster-RCNN in comparison to both SSD and YOLOv3 uses an additional shared deep neural network to predict region proposals of the input image feature maps, which is aggregated in the feed downstream in the model for object classification and bounding box prediction. Faster-RCNN empirically outperformed other networks on small objects in our use case. One major consideration in addition to performance, when choosing object detectors, is model inference time. SSD and YOLOv3 tend to have fast inference times as measured in frames per second, which is a key consideration for real-time applications; larger networks like Faster-RCNN have slower inference time.

Hyperparameter optimization on Amazon SageMaker

A standard metric for evaluating object detectors is mean average precision (mAP). mAP is based on the model precision recall (PR) curve and provides a numerical metric that can be directly used across models. You can generate PR curves by setting model confidence score thresholds to different levels, resulting in precision and recall pairs. Plotting these pairs with a bit of interpolation results in a PR curve. Average precision (AP) is then defined as the area under this PR curve. Similarly, you may want to detect multiple objects in an image, such as K > 1 objects: mAP is the mean AP across all K classes.

Automatic model tuning in Amazon SageMaker, also known as hyperparameter optimization, allowed us to try over 100 models with unique parameter configurations to achieve the best model possible given our data. Hyperparameter optimization uses strategies like random search and Bayesian search to help tune hyper parameters in the ML algorithm. See the following sample code:

from sagemaker.tuner import IntegerParameter, CategoricalParameter, ContinuousParameter
from sagemaker.tuner import HyperparameterTuner hyperparameter_ranges = { "lr": ContinuousParameter(0.001, 0.1), " network": CategoricalParameter(["resnet50_v1b", "resnet101_v1d"])
} ### Objective metric Regex based on print statements in script
objective_metric_name = "Validation: "
metric_definitions = [{"Name": "Validation: ", "Regex": "Validation: ([0-9\.]+)"}] tuner = HyperparameterTuner( model_estimator, objective_metric_name, hyperparameter_ranges, metric_definitions, max_jobs=100, max_parallel_jobs=10,
) tuner.fit("s3://<bucket path for train and validation record-io files>/")

To do this, we specified the location of our data and manifest file on Amazon S3 and chose our Amazon SageMaker instance type and object detection algorithm to use (SSD with ResNet50). Amazon SageMaker hyperparameter optimization then launched several configurations of the base model with unique hyperparameter configurations, using Bayesian search to determine which configuration achieves the best model based on a preset test metric. In our case, we optimized towards the highest mean average precision (mAP) on our held-out test data. The following graph shows a visualization of a sample set of hyperparameter optimization jobs from the hyperparameter optimization tuner object.

Deploying the model

Deploying the model required only a few additional lines of code (hosting methods) within our Amazon SageMaker notebook instance. We can simply call tuner.deploy on our hyperparameter optimization tuner to deploy the best model based on the evaluation metric that was set for the hyperparameter optimization training job. The code below demonstrates a proof-of-concept deployment on Amazon SageMaker:

predictor = tuner.deploy(initial_instance_count=1, instance_type="ml.m5.xlarge")

The model weights for each training job are stored in Amazon S3. We can deploy any of the jobs or Amazon SageMaker trained models by passing its model artifact path to an Amazon SageMaker estimator object. To do this, we referred to the preconfigured container optimized to perform inference and linked it to the model weights. After this model-container pair was created on our account, we could configure an endpoint with the instance type and number of instances needed by the NFL. See the following code:

from sagemaker.mxnet.model import MXNetModel sagemaker_model = MXNetModel( model_data="s3://<path to training job model file>/model.tar.gz", role=role, py_version="py3", framework_version="1.6.0", entry_point="train.py",
) predictor = sagemaker_model.deploy( initial_instance_count=1, instance_type="ml.m5.xlarge"
)

Model inference for football detection

At runtime, a client sends a request to the endpoint hosting the model container on an Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instance and returns the output (inference). In production, scaling endpoints for large-scale inference on the NFL broadcast videos is significantly simplified with this pipeline.

Sensitivity and error analysis

When exploring strategies to improve model performance, you can scale up (use larger architectures) or scale out (acquire more data). After scaling up, which we discussed earlier during model exploration, data scientists commonly collect additional data in hopes of improving model generalizability. For our use case, we specifically aimed at reducing localization error. To do this, we created several test sets that quantitatively and qualitatively helped us understand mAP in relation to specific characteristics of the input video: occlusion (high vs. low) of the football, bounding box size (small vs. large) and aspect ratio (tall vs. wide) effects, camera angle (endzone vs. sideline), and contrast (high vs. low) between the football and its background area. From this, we understood which qualitative aspect of image the model was struggling to predict, and these findings led us to strategically gather additional data to target and improve upon these areas.

Summary

The NFL uses cloud computing to create innovative experiences that introduce additional ways for fans to enjoy football while making the game more efficient and fast-paced. By combining football detection with additional new technologies, the NFL can reduce game stoppage, support officiating, and bring real-time insight into what’s happening on the field, leading to a greater connection with the game that fans love. While fans take delight in “America’s game,” they can rest assured that the NFL in collaboration with AWS is utilizing the newest and best technologies to make the game more enjoyable with a broader range of data points.

You can find full, end-to-end examples of creating custom training jobs, training state-of-the-art object detection models, implementing HPO, and model deployment on Amazon SageMaker on the AWS Labs GitHub repo. To learn more about the ML Solutions Lab, see Amazon Machine Learning Solutions Lab.


About the Authors

Michael Lopez is the Director of Football Data and Analytics at the National Football League and a Lecturer of Statistics and Research Associate at Skidmore College. At the National Football League, his work centers on how to use data to enhance and better understand the game of football.

Colby Wise is a Senior Data Scientist and manager at the Amazon Machine Learning Solutions Lab where he works with customers across different verticals to accelerate their use of machine learning and AWS cloud services to solve their business challenges.

Divya Bhargavi is a Data Scientist at the Amazon Machine Learning Solutions Lab where she develops machine learning models to address customers’ business problems. Most recently, she worked on Computer Vision solutions involving both classical and deep learning methods for a sports customer.

Source: https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/machine-learning/football-tracking-in-the-nfl-with-amazon-sagemaker/

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Graph Convolutional Networks (GCN)

In this post, we’re gonna take a close look at one of the well-known graph neural networks named Graph Convolutional Network (GCN). First, we’ll get the intuition to see how it works, then we’ll go deeper into the maths behind it. Why Graphs? Many problems are graphs in true nature. In our world, we see many data are graphs, […]

The post Graph Convolutional Networks (GCN) appeared first on TOPBOTS.

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graph convolutional networks

In this post, we’re gonna take a close look at one of the well-known graph neural networks named Graph Convolutional Network (GCN). First, we’ll get the intuition to see how it works, then we’ll go deeper into the maths behind it.

Why Graphs?

Many problems are graphs in true nature. In our world, we see many data are graphs, such as molecules, social networks, and paper citations networks.

Tasks on Graphs

  • Node classification: Predict a type of a given node
  • Link prediction: Predict whether two nodes are linked
  • Community detection: Identify densely linked clusters of nodes
  • Network similarity: How similar are two (sub)networks

Machine Learning Lifecycle

In the graph, we have node features (the data of nodes) and the structure of the graph (how nodes are connected).

For the former, we can easily get the data from each node. But when it comes to the structure, it is not trivial to extract useful information from it. For example, if 2 nodes are close to one another, should we treat them differently to other pairs? How about high and low degree nodes? In fact, each specific task can consume a lot of time and effort just for Feature Engineering, i.e., to distill the structure into our features.

graph convolutional network
Feature engineering on graphs. (Picture from [1])

It would be much better to somehow get both the node features and the structure as the input, and let the machine to figure out what information is useful by itself.

That’s why we need Graph Representation Learning.

graph convolutional network
We want the graph can learn the “feature engineering” by itself. (Picture from [1])

If this in-depth educational content on convolutional neural networks is useful for you, you can subscribe to our AI research mailing list to be alerted when we release new material. 

Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs)

Paper: Semi-supervised Classification with Graph Convolutional Networks (2017) [3]

GCN is a type of convolutional neural network that can work directly on graphs and take advantage of their structural information.

it solves the problem of classifying nodes (such as documents) in a graph (such as a citation network), where labels are only available for a small subset of nodes (semi-supervised learning).

graph convolutional network
Example of Semi-supervised learning on Graphs. Some nodes dont have labels (unknown nodes).

Main Ideas

As the name “Convolutional” suggests, the idea was from Images and then brought to Graphs. However, when Images have a fixed structure, Graphs are much more complex.

graph convolutional network
Convolution idea from images to graphs. (Picture from [1])

The general idea of GCN: For each node, we get the feature information from all its neighbors and of course, the feature of itself. Assume we use the average() function. We will do the same for all the nodes. Finally, we feed these average values into a neural network.

In the following figure, we have a simple example with a citation network. Each node represents a research paper, while edges are the citations. We have a pre-process step here. Instead of using the raw papers as features, we convert the papers into vectors (by using NLP embedding, e.g., tf–idf).

Let’s consider the green node. First off, we get all the feature values of its neighbors, including itself, then take the average. The result will be passed through a neural network to return a resulting vector.

graph convolutional network
The main idea of GCN. Consider the green node. First, we take the average of all its neighbors, including itself. After that, the average value is passed through a neural network. Note that, in GCN, we simply use a fully connected layer. In this example, we get 2-dimension vectors as the output (2 nodes at the fully connected layer).

In practice, we can use more sophisticated aggregate functions rather than the average function. We can also stack more layers on top of each other to get a deeper GCN. The output of a layer will be treated as the input for the next layer.

graph convolutional network
Example of 2-layer GCN: The output of the first layer is the input of the second layer. Again, note that the neural network in GCN is simply a fully connected layer (Picture from [2])

Let’s take a closer look at the maths to see how it really works.

Intuition and the Maths behind

First, we need some notations

Let’s consider a graph G as below.

graph convolutional network
From the graph G, we have an adjacency matrix A and a Degree matrix D. We also have feature matrix X.

How can we get all the feature values from neighbors for each node? The solution lies in the multiplication of A and X.

Take a look at the first row of the adjacency matrix, we see that node A has a connection to E. The first row of the resulting matrix is the feature vector of E, which A connects to (Figure below). Similarly, the second row of the resulting matrix is the sum of feature vectors of D and E. By doing this, we can get the sum of all neighbors’ vectors.

graph convolutional network
Calculate the first row of the “sum vector matrix” AX
  • There are still some things that need to improve here.
  1. We miss the feature of the node itself. For example, the first row of the result matrix should contain features of node A too.
  2. Instead of sum() function, we need to take the average, or even better, the weighted average of neighbors’ feature vectors. Why don’t we use the sum() function? The reason is that when using the sum() function, high-degree nodes are likely to have huge v vectors, while low-degree nodes tend to get small aggregate vectors, which may later cause exploding or vanishing gradients (e.g., when using sigmoid). Besides, Neural networks seem to be sensitive to the scale of input data. Thus, we need to normalize these vectors to get rid of the potential issues.

In Problem (1), we can fix by adding an Identity matrix I to A to get a new adjacency matrix Ã.

Pick lambda = 1 (the feature of the node itself is just important as its neighbors), we have Ã = A + I. Note that we can treat lambda as a trainable parameter, but for now, just assign the lambda to 1, and even in the paper, lambda is just simply assigned to 1.

By adding a self-loop to each node, we have the new adjacency matrix

Problem (2)For matrix scaling, we usually multiply the matrix by a diagonal matrix. In this case, we want to take the average of the sum feature, or mathematically, to scale the sum vector matrix ÃX according to the node degrees. The gut feeling tells us that our diagonal matrix used to scale here is something related to the Degree matrix D̃ (Why , not D? Because we’re considering Degree matrix  of new adjacency matrix Ã, not A anymore).

The problem now becomes how we want to scale/normalize the sum vectors? In other words:

How we pass the information from neighbors to a specific node?

We would start with our old friend average. In this case, D̃ inverse (i.e., D̃^{-1}) comes into play. Basically, each element in D̃ inverse is the reciprocal of its corresponding term of the diagonal matrix D.

For example, node A has a degree of 2, so we multiple the sum vectors of node A by 1/2, while node E has a degree of 5, we should multiple the sum vector of E by 1/5, and so on.

Thus, by taking the multiplication of D̃ inverse and X, we can take the average of all neighbors’ feature vectors (including itself).

So far so good. But you may ask How about the weighted average()?. Intuitively, it should be better if we treat high and low degree nodes differently.

We’re just scaling by rows, but ignoring their corresponding columns (dash boxes)
Add a new scaler for columns.

The new scaler gives us the “weighted” average. What are we doing here is to put more weights on the nodes that have low-degree and reduce the impact of high-degree nodes. The idea of this weighted average is that we assume low-degree nodes would have bigger impacts on their neighbors, whereas high-degree nodes generate lower impacts as they scatter their influence at too many neighbors.

graph convolutional network
When aggregating feature at node B, we assign the biggest weight for node B itself (degree of 3), and the lowest weight for node E (degree of 5)
Because we normalize twice, we change “-1” to “-1/2”

For example, we have a multi-classification problem with 10 classes, F will be set to 10. After having the 10-dimension vectors at layer 2, we pass these vectors through a softmax function for the prediction.

The Loss function is simply calculated by the cross-entropy error over all labeled examples, where Y_{l} is the set of node indices that have labels.

The number of layers

The meaning of #layers

The number of layers is the farthest distance that node features can travel. For example, with 1 layer GCN, each node can only get the information from its neighbors. The gathering information process takes place independentlyat the same time for all the nodes.

When stacking another layer on top of the first one, we repeat the gathering info process, but this time, the neighbors already have information about their own neighbors (from the previous step). It makes the number of layers as the maximum number of hops that each node can travel. So, depends on how far we think a node should get information from the networks, we can config a proper number for #layers. But again, in the graph, normally we don’t want to go too far. With 6–7 hops, we almost get the entire graph which makes the aggregation less meaningful.

graph convolutional network
Example: Gathering info process with 2 layers of target node i

How many layers should we stack the GCN?

In the paper, the authors also conducted some experiments with shallow and deep GCNs. From the figure below, we see that the best results are obtained with a 2- or 3-layer model. Besides, with a deep GCN (more than 7 layers), it tends to get bad performances (dashed blue line). One solution is to use the residual connections between hidden layers (purple line).

graph convolutional network
Performance over #layers. Picture from the paper [3]

Take home notes

  • GCNs are used for semi-supervised learning on the graph.
  • GCNs use both node features and the structure for the training
  • The main idea of the GCN is to take the weighted average of all neighbors’ node features (including itself): Lower-degree nodes get larger weights. Then, we pass the resulting feature vectors through a neural network for training.
  • We can stack more layers to make GCNs deeper. Consider residual connections for deep GCNs. Normally, we go for 2 or 3-layer GCN.
  • Maths Note: When seeing a diagonal matrix, think of matrix scaling.
  • A demo for GCN with StellarGraph library here [5]. The library also provides many other algorithms for GNNs.

Note from the authors of the paper: The framework is currently limited to undirected graphs (weighted or unweighted). However, it is possible to handle both directed edges and edge features by representing the original directed graph as an undirected bipartite graph with additional nodes that represent edges in the original graph.

What’s next?

With GCNs, it seems we can make use of both the node features and the structure of the graph. However, what if the edges have different types? Should we treat each relationship differently? How to aggregate neighbors in this case? What are the advanced approaches recently?

In the next post of the graph topic, we will look into some more sophisticated methods.

graph convolutional network
How to deal with different relationships on the edges (brother, friend,….)?

REFERENCES

[1] Excellent slides on Graph Representation Learning by Jure Leskovec (Stanford):  https://drive.google.com/file/d/1By3udbOt10moIcSEgUQ0TR9twQX9Aq0G/view?usp=sharing

[2] Video Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) made simple: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KRAOZIULzw

[3] Paper Semi-supervised Classification with Graph Convolutional Networks (2017): https://arxiv.org/pdf/1609.02907.pdf

[4] GCN source code: https://github.com/tkipf/gcn

[5] Demo with StellarGraph library: https://stellargraph.readthedocs.io/en/stable/demos/node-classification/gcn-node-classification.html

This article was originally published on Medium and re-published to TOPBOTS with permission from the author.

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Microsoft BOT Framework — Loops

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Loops is one of the basic programming structure in any programming language. In this article, I would demonstrate Loops within Microsoft BOT framework.

To follow this article clearly, please have a quick read on the basics of the Microsoft BOT framework. I wrote a couple of articles sometime back and the links are below:

Let’s Get Started.

I would be using the example of a TaxiBot described in one of my previous article. The BOT asks some general questions and books a Taxi for the user. In this article, I would be providing an option to the user to choose there preferred cars for the ride. The flow will look like below:

Create a new Dialog Class for Loops

We would need 2 Dialog classes to be able to achieve this task:

  1. SuperTaxiBotDialog.cs: This would be the main dialog class. The waterfall will contains all the steps as defined in the previous article.
  2. ChooseCarDialog.cs: A new dialog class will be created which would allow the user to pick preferred cars. The loop will be defined in this class.

The water fall steps for both the classes could be visualized as:

The complete code base is present on the Github page.

Important Technical Aspects

  • Link between the Dialogs: In the constructor initialization of SuperTaxiBotDialog, add a dialog for ChooseCarDialog by adding the line:
AddDialog(new ChooseCarDialog());

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  • Call ChooseCarDialog from SuperTaxiBotDialog: SuperTaxiBotDialog calls ChooseCarDialog from the step SetPreferredCars, hence the return statement of the step should be like:
await stepContext.BeginDialogAsync(nameof(ChooseCarDialog), null, cancellationToken);
  • Return the flow back from ChooseCarDialog to SuperTaxiBotDialog: Once the user has selected 2 cars, the flow has to be sent back to SuperTaxiBotDialog from the step LoopCarAsync. This should be achieved by ending the ChooseCarDialog in the step LoopCarAsync.
return await stepContext.EndDialogAsync(carsSelected, cancellationToken);

The complete code base is present on the Github page.

Once the project is executed using BOT Framework Emulator, the output would look like:

Hopefully, this article will help the readers in implementing a loop with Microsoft BOT framework. For questions: Hit me.

Regards

Tarun

Source: https://chatbotslife.com/microsoft-bot-framework-loops-fe415f0e7ca1?source=rss—-a49517e4c30b—4

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The Bleeding Edge of Voice

This fall, a little known event is starting to make waves. As COVID dominates the headlines, an event called “Voice Launch” is pulling…

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Tapaan Chauhan

This fall, a little known event is starting to make waves. As COVID dominates the headlines, an event called “Voice Launch” is pulling together an impressive roster of start-ups and voice tech companies intending to uncover the next big ideas and start-ups in voice.

While voice tech has been around for a while, as the accuracy of speech recognition improves, it moves into its prime. “As speech recognition moves from 85% to 95% accuracy, who will use a keyboard anymore?” says Voice Launch organizer Eric Sauve. “And that new, more natural way to interact with our devices will usher in a series of technological advances,” he added.

Voice technology is something that has been dreamt of and worked on for decades all over the world. Why? Well, the answer is very straightforward. Voice recognition allows consumers to multitask by merely speaking to their Google Home, Amazon Alexa, Siri, etc. Digital voice recording works by recording a voice sample of a person’s speech and quickly converting it into written texts using machine language and sophisticated algorithms. Voice input is just the more efficient form of computing, says Mary Meeker in her ‘Annual Internet Trends Report.’ As a matter of fact, according to ComScore, 50% of all searches will be done by voice by 2020, and 30% of searches will be done without even a screen, according to Gartner. As voice becomes a part of things we use every day like our cars, phones, etc. it will become the new “norm.”

The event includes a number of inspiration sessions meant to help start-ups and founders pick the best strategies. Companies presenting here include industry leaders like Google and Amazon and less known hyper-growth voice tech companies like Deepgram and Balto and VCs like OMERS Ventures and Techstars.

But the focus of the event is the voice tech start-ups themselves, and this year’s event has some interesting participants. Start-ups will pitch their ideas, and the audience will vote to select the winners. The event is a cross between a standard pitchfest and Britain’s Got Talent.

Source: https://chatbotslife.com/the-bleeding-edge-of-voice-67538bd859a9?source=rss—-a49517e4c30b—4

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